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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 Wiki macros allow macro authors to develop reusable and distributable macro modules. There is no java code involved; hence no compiling or packaging. The macro author simply needs to create a wiki page according to a particular specification and that's all!
6
7 This page is a tutorial but you can also access the [[reference documentation for the Wiki Macro feature>>doc:extensions:Extension.WikiMacroStore.WebHome]].
8
9 = Hello Macro =
10
11 We are going to start with a very simple xwiki/2.0 wiki macro which prints a greeting message to the document content. It isn't a very useful macro but the idea is to get you familiarised with the wiki macro creation process.
12
13 == Definition ==
14
15 Wiki macros are defined using objects of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroClass##. You define a wiki macro by creating a new wiki page and attaching to it an object of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroClass##. You will need to [[be advanced>>Documentation.UserGuide.Features.PageEditing||anchor="HAdvancedProfile"]] to access the [[object editor>>Documentation.UserGuide.Features.PageEditing||anchor="HObjectseditingmode"]].
16
17 {{warning}}
18 There can be only one object of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroClass## per wiki page (if you add more only the first will be used).
19 {{/warning}}
20
21 This class contains the following fields:
22
23 * **Macro id**: Id of the macro to be used by users when invoking your macro from wiki code
24 * **Macro name**: Name of the macro to be displayed on the wysiwyg editor
25 * **Macro description**: A short description of the macro to be displayed on the WYSIWYG editor
26 * **Default categories**: Default categories under which this macro should be listed {{warning}}before 14.4RC1 this was called **Default category**{{/warning}}
27 * **Supports inline mode**: Whether the macro can be used in an inline context or not
28 * **Macro Content availability**: {{warning}}before 11.5RC1 this was called **Macro Content Type**{{/warning}} whether this macro should support a body or not
29 * **Macro content type**: {{warning}}this field has been renamed **Macro Content Availability** since 11.5RC1{{/warning}} the type of accepted content: two values are proposed, ##WIKI## if this content should be editable like a wiki content, or ##UNKNOWN## if it should be displayed like a plain text. It's also possible to specify a custom java type such as {{code language="java"}}java.util.List<java.lang.String>{{/code}}. Leaving the field blank is equivalent to ##UNKWOWN## value.
30 * **Content description**: A short description about the macro's content to be displayed on the WYSIWYG editor
31 * **Macro code**: The actual wiki code that will be evaluated when the macro is executed, can be any xwiki content (should be in the same syntax as the document)
32 * {{version since="13.1RC1"}}**Priority**: The priority of execution relative to the other Macros. The lowest values have the highest priorities and execute first. For example a Macro with a priority of 100 will execute before one with a priority of 500. The default value is 1000.{{/version}}
33 * {{version since="10.10"}}**Asynchronous rendering**: Enabled or disable asynchronous rendering of the panel. Disabled by default.{{/version}}
34 * {{version since="10.10"}}**Cached**: Indicate if the result of the execution of the element should be cached. Disabled by default.{{/version}}
35 * {{version since="10.10"}}**Context elements**: The context information required during the execution of the extension (current user, current document, etc.). It's also used to generate the cache key.{{/version}}
36
37 Now we can define our hello macro as shown below:
38
39 {{image reference="macro1.png" width="650px"/}}
40
41 == Invocation ==
42
43 A wiki macro can be invoked just like any other macro is invoked. Since we are writing a xwiki/2.1 wiki macro, we can invoke our **hello macro** as below:
44
45 {{code language="none"}}
46 {{hello/}}
47 {{/code}}
48
49 And if you view the result it would say "Hello World!" (of course).
50
51 == Content ==
52
53 {{version since="11.4RC1"}}
54 The easiest way to insert the content of the wiki macro is to use a dedicated macro in the body of the wikimacro:
55
56 {{code language='none'}}
57 {{wikimacrocontent/}}
58 {{/code}}
59
60 Note that by default this makes the content of the macro directly editable in [[the WYSIWYG editor>>https://extensions.xwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Extension/CKEditor%20Integration/#HWikiMacros]].
61 {{/version}}
62
63 For more details, see the [[Scripting Tips section below>>||anchor="HScriptingTips"]].
64
65 == Parameters ==
66
67 Introducing a parameter to a wiki macro is pretty straight forward; you simply need to add an object of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroParameterClass## into your wiki macro document (one object per parameter). This class contains several fields that allow you to define your parameter clearly:
68
69 * Parameter name: Name of the parameter, users will refer this name when invoking your macro with parameters
70 * Parameter description (optional): A short description of the parameter, this description will be made available on the WYSIWYG editor
71 * Parameter mandatory: Indicates if this particular parameter is mandatory, wiki macro will fail to execute if a mandatory parameter is missing
72 * {{version since="10.10"}}Parameter default value (optional): The default value of the parameter when it's empty{{/version}}
73 * {{version since="10.10"}}Parameter type (optional): Indicates to which Java type the parameter value (defined as a String) must be converted to (##java.lang.String## by default).{{/version}}
74 ** Example 1: ##java.awt.Color##. Will provide a Color Picker when the macro is edited in the WYSIWYG editor.
75
76 Now we're going to extend our **hello macro** with a parameter. We will introduce a parameter named //greetUser// that will indicate if the greeting message should be tailored for the current user viewing the page. The definition of the parameter is shown below:
77
78 [[image:macro3.png]]
79
80 A macro parameter defined this way can be accessed from any scripting language within the macro code. For example, we are going to utilize our //greetUser// parameter within **hello macro** as shown below:
81
82 {{code language="none"}}
83 {{velocity}}
84 #if ($wikimacro.parameters.greetUser && "XWiki.XWikiGuest" != "$xcontext.user")
85 Hello $services.rendering.escape($xwiki.user.email, 'xwiki/2.1')!
86 #else
87 Hello world!
88 #end
89 {{/velocity}}
90 {{/code}}
91
92 As you might have realized already, direct binding of parameters is not supported at the moment. That is, you cannot access //greetUser// parameter with **$greetUser**. Instead you must use **$wikimacro.parameters.greetUser**. We plan to introduce some form of direct parameter binding in near future.
93
94 Since {{info}}11.5RC1{{/info}}, it is also possible to display the content of a macro parameter by using a dedicated macro:
95 {{code language="none"}}Hello {{wikimacroparameter name="greetUsers" /}}{{/code}}
96
97 Finally, we can test our new version of **hello macro** with the following invocation:
98
99 {{code language="none"}}
100 {{hello greetUser="true"/}}
101 {{/code}}
102
103 If you want to call the new version of the **hello macro** with a parameter from a variable you will need to wrap the call in a velocity macro like this:
104
105 {{code language="none"}}
106 {{velocity}}
107 #set ($greet = true)
108 {{hello greetUser="$greet"/}}
109 {{/velocity}}
110 {{/code}}
111
112 == Translations ==
113
114 When your macro is ready, you might want to provide the description of the macro and its parameters in different languages. For that, you need to create a set of translation keys and values (as described [[here>>platform:DevGuide.InternationalizingApplications]]) and then just use the following convention for the keys you add in this storage (no modification is needed on the macro itself, the association of the translations to the macro is done based on a convention of the form of the translation keys):
115
116 {{code language="properties"}}
117 rendering.macro.<macro id>.name=Name of the macro, displayed in the macros list in the macros wizard
118 rendering.macro.<macro id>.description=Description of the macro, displayed as a help in the macros list in the macros wizard
119
120 rendering.macro.<macro id>.parameter.<parameter name>.name=Name of the macro parameter, to be displayed in the form for the macro settings in the macros wizard
121 rendering.macro.<macro id>.parameter.<parameter name>.description=Description of the macro parameter, to be displayed as a help in the form for the macro settings in the macros wizard
122 {{/code}}
123
124 Don't forget to make sure that the visibility of the translations is the same as the visibility of the macro, so that anywhere you use the macro you also have the translations.
125
126 In our example, french translations would be something like this:
127
128 {{code language="properties"}}
129 rendering.macro.hello.name=Macro pour dire bonjour
130 rendering.macro.hello.description=Ceci est une macro qui va dire "Bonjour" a l'utilisateur
131 rendering.macro.hello.parameter.greetUser.name=Personnaliser le message
132 rendering.macro.hello.parameter.greetUser.description=Personnaliser le message pour l'utilisateur courant en train de visualiser la page. Les valeurs possibles sont "true" (oui) et "false" (non).
133 {{/code}}
134
135 = Macro Visibility and Rights =
136
137 There are 3 levels of visibility for a macro:
138
139 * ##Global##
140 ** on main wiki (or {{info}}before XWiki 10.4RC1{{/info}}) the macro will be available in all the pages of all the (sub)wikis. Requires the macro author to have **Programming Rights**
141 ** on subwiki {{info}}in 10.4RC1+{{/info}} synonym of ##Current Wiki## visibility
142 * ##Current Wiki##, which means that the macro will be available in all the pages of the wiki the macro is in. Requires the macro author to have **Admin Rights**
143 * ##Current User##, which means that the macro will only be available to the user who is its author. No special rights required.
144
145 == Using protected API in wiki macros ==
146
147 Also, if the macro needs to use [[protected API>>platform:DevGuide.Scripting||anchor="HXWikiCoreAccess"]], the author of the macro will need to have programming rights. Note that the macro will always be executed with the rights of its author, and not with the rights of the author of the calling document (the document using the macro). Specifically, if the macro uses protected API, only the macro author needs to have programming rights, not all the authors of the documents that call this macro.
148
149 = Bindings =
150
151 See all available bindings in [[the reference documentation page>>doc:extensions:Extension.WikiMacroStore.WebHome||anchor="HBindings"]].
152
153 = WYSIWYG Access =
154
155 A wiki macros is treated just like any other rendering macro in the system. As such, the moment you save your wiki macro it will be available to the users through the WYSIWYG editor's **Insert Macro** dialog box:
156
157 [[image:macro2.png||height="293" width="350"]]
158
159 [[image:macro4.png||height="149" width="350"]]
160
161 == Special code for WYSIWYG edit mode ==
162
163 Even in edit mode, the WYSIWYG editor will execute the macro and feed the result back into the document. If your macro use some JSX, these will not be loaded. But, if your macro produce some Javascript that use those JSX or manipulate the document's DOM (injecting new elements, moving existing elements, removing elements, etc.), you may want to protect the content in WYSIWYG edit mode in order to prevent the performed transformation to get saved. Here is how you can prevent this behavior:
164
165 {{code language="velocity"}}
166 {{velocity}}
167 #if("$xcontext.action" != "edit")
168 {{html}}
169 <script type="text/javascript">
170 //<![CDATA[
171 ... some javascript ...
172 // ]]>
173 </script>
174 {{/html}}
175 #end
176 ##
177 ## Rest of the code.
178 {{/velocity}}
179 {{/code}}
180
181 == WYSIWYG editing of macro content or parameter ==
182
183 As specified above you can use the dedicated macros {{code language="none"}}{{wikimacrocontent/}}{{/code}} and {{code language="none"}}{{wikimacroparameter name="foo"/}}{{/code}} to allow the users of your macro to be able to edit the values of the macro directly in the WYSIWYG editor once the macro is inserted.
184 Note that this is currently only possible if you specified that the macro content (or parameter) type is ##WIKI## type.
185
186 {{info}}
187 There is also a known limitation related to CKEditor that prevents editing directly those macros if they are not used as "standalone" macro. Details can be found on the related issue: https://jira.xwiki.org/browse/CKEDITOR-248.
188 {{/info}}
189
190 = Scripting Tips =
191
192 Following are a few useful hints if you plan to do advanced scripting inside your wiki macros:
193
194 * Since 2.4M1, it's possible to directly return the desired list of rendering blocks without having to render them first to let them be parsed back by the macro transformation. The benefits are that it could be a lots quicker and most of all it means supporting syntax which does not provide any renderer. It also makes it possible to generate some XDOM which is impossible to write in any some syntax. For example the following wiki macro is generating a LinkBlock targeting a relative URL:(((
195 {{code language="groovy"}}
196 {{groovy}}
197 import java.util.Collections;
198 import org.xwiki.rendering.listener.Link;
199 import org.xwiki.rendering.block.WordBlock;
200 import org.xwiki.rendering.block.LinkBlock;
201
202 ref link = new Link();
203 link.setReference("/xwiki/edit/Main/WebHome");
204 link.setType(LinkType.URI);
205
206 ref linkBlock = new LinkBlock(Collections.singletonList(new WordBlock("Edit home page"))), link, false);
207
208 wikimacro.result = Collections.singletonList(linkBlock)
209 {{/groovy}}
210
211 This text will not appear in the result.
212 {{/code}}
213 )))
214 * If you need to directly access the parsed XDOM of the content you may do the parsing yourself using the rendering service. Here is a small sample:(((
215 {{code language="velocity"}}
216 {{velocity output="no"}}
217 ## get the macro content in a velocity string
218 #set($wikiresult = $wikimacro.content)
219 ## Add a wrapping div as a sample of the action of this macro
220 #set($wikiresult = "(% class='newstyle' %)((($wikiresult)))")
221 ## parse the string and return the resulting blocks
222 #set($wikimacro.result = $services.rendering.parse($wikiresult, $xwiki.getCurrentContentSyntaxId()).getChildren())
223 {{/velocity}}
224 {{/code}}
225 )))
226
227 = Troubleshooting =
228
229 == A Pitfall of Optional Parameters ==
230
231 {{info}}
232 This pitfall has been fixed in XWiki 2.2
233 {{/info}}
234
235 There is a common pitfall for using optional parameters. The following macro code contains a not so obvious bug:
236
237 {{code languege="velocity"}}
238 {{velocity}}
239 #set($greetUser=$xcontext.macro.params.greetUser)
240 #if ("true" == $greetUser && "XWiki.XWikiGuest" != "$xcontext.user" )
241 Hello $services.rendering.escape($xwiki.user.email, 'xwiki/2.1')!
242 #else
243 Hello world!
244 #end
245 {{/velocity}}
246 {{/code}}
247
248 If we invoke it twice in a row:
249
250 {{code language="none"}}
251 {{hello greetUser="true" /}}
252 {{hello /}}
253 {{/code}}
254
255 The second invocation will not print "Hello World!" as we'd expect. But it will print the same result as the first invocation. The reasons are:
256
257 * Macro parameters are implemented as global parameters. So, they remain the same across multiple macro invocations.
258 * If ##$xcontext.macro.params.greetUser## contains "null", it will not be assigned to ##$greetUser##. This is different from C/C++ or Java.
259
260 So in order to get around it, you can use:
261
262 {{code language="none"}}
263 #set($greetUser="$!xcontext.macro.params.greetUser")
264 {{/code}}

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